Michel Oris, Long Lives and Old Age Poverty - Descripción
This presentation combines an inter- and an intra-cohort perspective to study one outcome of long lives: economic vulnerability in old age. The theoretical background is given through a combination of a social stratification framework, which incorporates cumulative disadvantage theory, and an institutional perspective emphasizing life course policies. At the macro level, the increase in educational offerings from the 1930s to the 1960s and the progressive implementation of a pension system were the driving forces of the strong decrease in old age poverty experienced over the last three decades, creating impressive differences between the cohorts. At an individual level, the pathway from low education early in life to economic hardship after retirement is by far the most important. This result supports social stratification theory. The inability to take advantage of opportunities because of low human capital was a major source of vulnerability. Moreover, while in childhood and adulthood both education and a pension system based on life capital accumulation discriminated against women, in old age welfare institutions partly compensated for the prior disadvantage.
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Michel Oris, Long Lives and Old Age Poverty - Biografía
Michel Oris is a full professor in the School of Social Sciences, University of Geneva. Vice-Rector for Research and Human Resources since mid-July 2015, he was previously the director of the Interdisciplinary Center for Gerontology and Vulnerability Studies and codirector of the Swiss National Centre of Competency in Research “LIVES. Overcoming Vulnerabilities. Life Course Perspectives”. He also founded the program of Socioeconomics and Demography at the University of Geneva. He is president of AIDELF (Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française) and of the Société de Démographie Historique. His research focuses on inequalities, with an emphasis on the living and health conditions of the elderly, injustices regarding death, and interactions between individual trajectories and the dynamics of social structures, between vulnerabilities and life courses.